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Reviews van anderen Gemiddelde: Iceland had been hit especially hard by the Great Recession that began in December , because of the failure of its banking system and a subsequent economic crisis.
The Financial Supervisory Authority of Iceland used permission granted by the emergency legislation to take over the domestic operations of the three largest banks.
Instead, new banks were established to take on the domestic operations of the banks, and the old banks will be run into bankruptcy.
On 26 January , the coalition government collapsed due to the public dissent over the handling of the financial crisis. Thousands of Icelanders have moved from the country after the collapse, and many of those moved to Norway.
In , people moved from Iceland to Norway; in , the figure was 1, Iceland has a high level of car ownership per capita; with a car for every 1.
A great number of roads remain unpaved, mostly little-used rural roads. Route 1 , or the Ring Road Icelandic: It serves several international and domestic airline companies.
Iceland has no passenger railways. RKV serves general aviation traffic and has daily- or regular domestic flights to 12 local townships within Iceland.
There are a total of registered airports and airfields in Iceland; most of them are unpaved and located in rural areas. Six main ferry services provide regular access to various outpost communities or shorten travel distances.
On 22 January , Iceland announced its first round of offshore licences for companies wanting to conduct hydrocarbon exploration and production in a region northeast of Iceland, known as the Dreki area.
As of [update] , the government of Iceland was in talks with the government of the United Kingdom about the possibility of constructing a high-voltage direct-current connector for transmission of electricity between the two countries.
The Ministry of Education, Science and Culture is responsible for the policies and methods that schools must use, and they issue the National Curriculum Guidelines.
However, playschools, primary schools, and lower secondary schools are funded and administered by the municipalities.
The government does allow citizens to Home educate their children, however under a very strict set of demands. The current legislation concerning playschools was passed in They are also responsible for ensuring that the curriculum is suitable so as to make the transition into compulsory education as easy as possible.
The school year lasts nine months, beginning between 21 August and 1 September, ending between 31 May and 10 June. Lessons take place five days a week.
All public schools have mandatory education in Christianity, although an exemption may be considered by the Minister of Education.
These schools are also known as gymnasia in English. Though not compulsory, everyone who has had a compulsory education has the right to upper secondary education.
This stage of education is governed by the Upper Secondary School Act of All schools in Iceland are mixed sex schools.
According to a Eurostat report by the European Commission , Iceland spends around 3. The original population of Iceland was of Nordic and Gaelic origin.
This is evident from literary evidence dating from the settlement period as well as from later scientific studies such as blood type and genetic analyses.
One such genetic study indicated that the majority of the male settlers were of Nordic origin while the majority of the women were of Gaelic origin, meaning many settlers of Iceland were Norsemen who brought Gaelic slaves with them.
Iceland has extensive genealogical records dating back to the late 17th century and fragmentary records extending back to the Age of Settlement.
The population of the island is believed to have varied from 40, to 60, in the period ranging from initial settlement until the midth century.
During that time, cold winters, ash fall from volcanic eruptions, and bubonic plagues adversely affected the population several times.
After the destructive volcanic eruptions of the Laki volcano during —, the population reached a low of about 40, With a fertility rate of 2. In December , 33, people Polish people make up the largest minority group by a considerable margin, and still form the bulk of the foreign workforce.
Many Polish immigrants were also considering leaving in as a result of the Icelandic financial crisis. The southwest corner of Iceland is the most densely populated region.
Some Icelanders under the leadership of Erik the Red settled Greenland in the late 10th century. Emigration of Icelanders to the United States and Canada began in the s.
As of [update] , Canada had over 88, people of Icelandic descent,  while there are more than 40, Americans of Icelandic descent, according to the US census.
In grammar and vocabulary, it has changed less from Old Norse than the other Nordic languages; Icelandic has preserved more verb and noun inflection , and has to a considerable extent developed new vocabulary based on native roots rather than borrowings from other languages.
The puristic tendency in the development of Icelandic vocabulary is to a large degree a result of conscious language planning, in addition to centuries of isolation.
The closest living relative of the Icelandic language is Faroese. Icelandic Sign Language was officially recognised as a minority language in English and Danish are compulsory subjects in the school curriculum.
English is widely understood and spoken, while basic to moderate knowledge of Danish is common mainly among the older generations.
Rather than using family names , as is the usual custom in most Western nations, Icelanders carry patronymic or matronymic surnames, patronyms being far more commonly practiced.
Patronymic last names are based on the first name of the father, while matronymic names are based on the first name of the mother.
Iceland has a universal health care system that is administered by its Ministry of Welfare Icelandic: Unlike most countries, there are no private hospitals, and private insurance is practically nonexistent.
A considerable portion of the government budget is assigned to health care,  and Iceland ranks 11th in health care expenditures as a percentage of GDP  and 14th in spending per capita.
As of [update] , Iceland had 3. Infant mortality is one of the lowest in the world,  and the proportion of the population that smokes is lower than the OECD average.
Iceland has a very low level of pollution, thanks to an overwhelming reliance on cleaner geothermal energy, a low population density, and a high level of environmental consciousness among citizens.
Icelanders have freedom of religion guaranteed under the Constitution , although the Church of Iceland , a Lutheran body, is the state church:.
The Registers Iceland keeps account of the religious affiliation of every Icelandic citizen. In , Icelanders were divided into religious groups as follows:.
Iceland is a very secular country; as with other Nordic nations, church attendance is relatively low. Icelandic culture has its roots in North Germanic traditions.
Icelandic literature is popular, in particular the sagas and eddas that were written during the High and Late Middle Ages.
Iceland is liberal with regard to LGBT rights issues. In , the Icelandic parliament passed legislation to create registered partnerships for same-sex couples, conferring nearly all the rights and benefits of marriage.
In , parliament voted unanimously to grant same-sex couples the same rights as heterosexual couples in adoption, parenting and assisted insemination treatment.
On 11 June , the Icelandic parliament amended the marriage law , making it gender neutral and defining marriage as between two individuals, making Iceland one of the first countries in the world to legalise same-sex marriages.
The law took effect on 27 June Icelanders are known for their deep sense of community: Egalitarianism is highly valued among the people of Iceland, with income inequality being among the lowest in the world.
As in other Nordic countries, equality between the sexes is very high; Iceland is consistently ranked among the top three countries in the world for women to live in.
A translation of the Bible was published in the 16th century. Steinn Steinarr was an influential modernist poet during the early 20th century who remains popular.
Icelanders are avid consumers of literature, with the highest number of bookstores per capita in the world. For its size, Iceland imports and translates more international literature than any other nation.
Most books in Iceland are sold between late September to early November. This time period is known as Jolabokaflod , the Christmas Book Flood.
The distinctive rendition of the Icelandic landscape by its painters can be linked to nationalism and the movement for home rule and independence , which was very active in the midth century.
Kjarval in particular is noted for the distinct techniques in the application of paint that he developed in a concerted effort to render the characteristic volcanic rock that dominates the Icelandic environment.
In the s, many Icelandic artists worked with the subject of the new painting in their work. In the recent years artistic practice has multiplied, and the Icelandic art scene has become a setting for many large scale projects and exhibitions.
The artist run gallery space Kling og Bang, members of which later ran the studio complex and exhibition venue Klink og Bank, has been a significant part of the trend of self-organised spaces, exhibitions and projects.
Traditional Icelandic turf houses. Until the 20th century, the vast majority of Icelanders lived in rural areas. Much Icelandic music is related to Nordic music , and includes folk and pop traditions.
Traditional Icelandic music is strongly religious. Smaller stations exist, many of them local. Radio is broadcast throughout the country, including some parts of the interior.
Iceland is home to LazyTown Icelandic: It has become a very popular programme for children and adults and is shown in over countries, including the Americas, the UK and Sweden.
There, he meets an old girlfriend of his youth and they both begin a journey through the wilds of Iceland to die together. This is the only Icelandic movie to have ever been nominated for an Academy Award.
Briem starred in the film Journey to the Center of the Earth , which shot scenes in Iceland. On 17 June , the parliament passed the Icelandic Modern Media Initiative , proposing greater protection of free speech rights and the identity of journalists and whistle-blowers—the strongest journalist protection law in the world.
CCP Games hosts the third most populated MMO in the world, which also has the largest total game area for an online game.
Strong voices within the community expressed concerns with this, stating that it is impossible to block access to pornography without compromising freedom of speech.
The main meal of the day for most Icelanders is dinner, which usually involves fish or lamb as the main course. Seafood is central to most Icelandic cooking, particularly cod and haddock but also salmon , herring , and halibut.
It is often prepared in a wide variety of ways, either smoked, pickled, boiled, or dried. Additionally, boiled or mashed potatoes, pickled cabbage, green beans, and rye bread are prevalent side dishes.
Coffee is a popular beverage in Iceland, with the country being third placed by per capita consumption worldwide in ,  and is drunk at breakfast, after meals, and with a light snack in mid-afternoon.
Coca-Cola is also widely consumed, to the extent that the country is said to have one of the highest per capita consumption rates in the world.
It is a type of schnapps made from distilled potatoes and flavoured with either caraway seeds or angelica.
Martin Miller blends Icelandic water with its England-distilled gin on the island. Several strong beers are now made by Icelandic breweries.
Sport is an important part of Icelandic culture, as the population is generally quite active. Popular sports include football , track and field , handball and basketball.
Handball is often referred to as the national sport. They then lost to hosts and later finalists France in the quarter finals.
For both the European and the world championship, Iceland is to date the smallest nation in terms of population to qualify. Iceland is also the smallest country to ever qualify for Eurobasket.
They did it in both and Although Iceland has had great success qualifying for Eurobasket , they have not managed to win a single game in the European Basketball final stages.
Iceland has excellent conditions for skiing , fishing , snowboarding , ice climbing and rock climbing , although mountain climbing and hiking are preferred by the general public.
Iceland is also a world-class destination for alpine ski touring and Telemark skiing , with the Troll Peninsula in Northern Iceland being the main centre of activity.
Iceland is also one of the leading countries in ocean rowing , Icelandic rower Fiann Paul became the fastest and the most record-breaking ocean rower.
He has claimed overall speed Guinness World Records for the fastest rowing of all four oceans Atlantic, Indian, Pacific and Arctic in a man-powered row boat , as well as the Guinness title of the first rower to ever hold the record for all four oceans simultaneously, claiming 24 Guinness World Records in total for Iceland by Swimming is popular in Iceland.
Geothermally heated outdoor pools are widespread, and swimming courses are a mandatory part of the national curriculum.
Rifle shooting became very popular in the 19th century with the encouragement of politicians and nationalists who were pushing for Icelandic independence.
To this day, it remains a significant pastime. As of [update] , there have been nine Icelandic chess grandmasters, a considerable number given the small size of the population.
Iceland won the world bridge championship the Bermuda Bowl in Yokohama, Japan, in and took second place with Sweden in Hamilton, Bermuda, in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 1 February This article is about the country. For other uses, see Iceland disambiguation.
For other uses, see Island disambiguation. Retrieved 5 June Retrieved 14 September History of Iceland and Timeline of Icelandic history.
Age of the Sturlungs. Landscape as seen from Laugavegur hiking trail. Administrative divisions of Iceland.
Renewable energy in Iceland. For statistics on demographics, see Demographics of Iceland. Population projection 1 January  Year Low Medium High , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , Largest cities or towns in Iceland statice.
Languages of Iceland and Icelandic language. High School precinct in Akureyri. Media of Iceland and Cinema of Iceland. Iceland portal Arctic portal.
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